Elevation: 150–300 metres (490–980 feet) above sea level
Rainfall: 1,600–2,300 millimetres (63–91 inches)
Temperature: 22–26°C (72–79°F)
The state of Acre lies in the far northwest of Brazil, along the borders with Bolivia and Peru. The state lies fully within the Amazon rainforest and was first developed economically during the rubber boom of the late nineteenth century. The first commercially important coffee-growing in the state began after a severe frost in 1994 raised global coffee prices (de Sa et al 2001).
A rubber plantation in the Acre rainforest, showing the grooves cut into the bark to extract the trees’ sap. Rubber, an important source of income for indigenous people in Acre, can be harvested without harming the trees.
Ninety-eight percent of the coffee grown in the state is the conilon lineage of Coffea canephora. Some varieties of arabica that are adapted to high temperatures, such as the hybrid variety Icatu, are also grown in Acre, but the arabica produced in the state is generally of very poor quality (Veiga et al 2003).
Acre’s conilon production, meanwhile, is highly efficient, thanks to the extensive use of modern clonal varieties and targeted irrigation. Yields of up to 100 bags per hectare have been reported (Acre State Government 2018). In 2011, the Acre government initiated a program of incentives to coffee farmers. The assistance they offered, such as free seedlings, resulted in rapid expansion of coffee-growing in the state. The 2021 harvest was estimated at 36,900 bags (IBGE 2021).