- Professor Abbott’s Five Foam Factors teach us that the conditions for producing superior latte foam are very specific.
- The two main protein types in milk are caseins and whey proteins.
- Casein acts as an emulsifier for homogenised fats.
- Whey protein is the principal surfactant in milk.
- Surfactants make milk foams more elastic by reducing the surface tension between the air and the bubble film known as the lamella.
Aeration level The proportional increase in the volume of milk expressed as a percentage after the introduction of entrained air; volume gains added to the milk as a result of condensed H20 also contribute to this volume increase.
Closed-cell foam A foam wherein each cell occupies a distinctly separate pocket, surrounded by solid material
Hydrolysis The chemical breakdown of a molecule caused by an interaction with water
Hydrophobic The tendency of a substance to repel or resist dissolution with water
Lamella The film coating the outside of a bubble
Liquid fraction The proportion of the total volume of a foam which is occupied by fluid