There is a limit to how much climate conditioning can be achieved by shade trees, mulching, cover crops, and irrigation. Where on-farm adaptation can go no further, the only clear action plan at present for the continuation of coffee farming is the relocation of farms to areas of low climatic risk. The most severely affected regions for coffee production are expected to be lowland areas, which means relocation will mostly be to higher altitudes. Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) can be used to calculate the ‘upslope potential’ in certain regions.
The upslope potential of many countries, including many in Southeast Asia, involves a potential shift into forested areas that have never been used for agricultural purposes.