Barista One

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B1 Milk Texturing

B1 4.06 – Recap and Glossary

Recap and Glossary


  • Baristas are responsible for monitoring the pressure gauges on espresso machines.
  • If ever the steam boiler’s pressure gauge reads dangerously high (i.e., over 2 bars), immediately switch off the machine and contact a qualified person to deal with the issue.
  • Steam boilers are usually set at between 1.0 and 1.5 bars of pressure.
  • Purging the steam wand before and after steaming is essential to prevent syphoning and to avoid adding old steamed-milk residue to the next pitcher of milk to be steamed.
  • Steaming milk to produce microfoam can be achieved by a two-step process: entraining air into the milk before the milk gets warm and, in doing so, increasing the milk volume by a factor of one-third.
  • Milk should be aerated between 20–50% for all milk-based drinks on the menu (except the cappuccino).
  • Non-dairy milks are prone to curdling, and it is necessary to use techniques to avoid this.
  • Milk should not be heated to below 55° C or above 65° C.
  • Colour-coded cloths will help to avoid cross-contamination of milk and equipment.
  • An organised milk-splitting protocol can help you achieve an even division of foam between drinks of the same type. Steaming milk for more than one drink at a time is more efficient than steaming individually for separate drinks.


Boiler pressure  The steam pressure built up in a sealed water boiler, used for producing steam

Cross-contamination  A situation in which chemicals or high-risk food types are mixed with each other in a way that is detrimental to their safe storage or renders them unsafe to consume

Curdling  A process that causing milk (dairy or non-dairy) to separate into curds or lumps

Entrain  To incorporate air into milk

Four Quarters Method  A system of milk-splitting that is designed to share equal amounts of foam between two drinks

Lipase enzyme  An enzyme that occurs naturally in milk that,