Latte art has a 26-year history, but references to milk mixed with coffee go back more than 300 years.
Milk is approximately 87% water.
The other 13% is mostly made up of sugar (lactose), fat, and protein.
Casein protein helps as an emulsifier.
Whey protein helps stabilise milk foam.
When entraining air, it’s helpful to add the air before the milk gets hot and to increase the volume of the milk by 33%.
Latent heat Energy that is absorbed or released by a substance as it changes phase (e.g., from a gas into a liquid)
Macrobubbles A foam made of large bubbles; in a latte foam context, bubbles greater than 0.5 mm in diameter are undesirably large.
Microfoam A foam comprised of very small, uniform-size bubbles having a diameter usually less than 500 um
Surfactant A ‘surface active agent’ which lowers the surface tension between substances; surfactants are integral to the performance of detergents, wetting agents, emulsifiers, foaming agents, and dispersants.End 0.5