In the 1950s, coffee science really started to get rolling. The National Coffee Association commissioned Professor E.E. Lockhart to complete a food technology Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). This was a first for the coffee industry.
Sensory science as we know it today was not a recognised practice in the 1950s. Nonetheless, with the help of a sensory panel, Lockhart established the target for optimum extraction rates, which is still relevant today.