Elevation: 170–600 metres (560–1,970 feet) above sea level
Rainfall: 2,300–2,700 millimetres (91–106 inches)
Temperature: 25–28°C (77–83°F)
Mato Grosso, meaning ‘thick forest’ in Portuguese, is a vast state in Brazil’s Centre-West, at its border with Bolivia. The landscape is dominated by the Amazon rainforest in the north and the cerrado drylands in the south. It has one of the lowest population densities of any Brazilian state, but is an important agricultural producer. Mato Grosso is the largest producer of soya, maize, and cotton in Brazil and is home to more cattle than any other state.
Mato Grosso produces mainly conilon, together with a small amount of arabica. The main coffee-producing areas are located in the northwest of the state, near the border with Rondônia. The land area planted with conilon has halved over the last decade, to about 11,600 hectares. The amount of conilon produced varies from year to year but has not substantially decreased overall, thanks to improvements in productivity.
Conilon production and planted area in Mato Grosso, 2012–2021. The planted area decreased by half during this period, but thanks to increases in yield per hectare, the overall amount of production did not change significantly. Production data are month-by-month estimates of the annual production for that harvest. Source: IGBE (2021)
As in neighbouring Rondônia, the increase in yield per hectare has been enabled by the planting of modern clonal conilon seedlings, which are more productive and disease resistant than traditional strains, and by investments in improved farming techniques, including fertilisation, pruning, and irrigation (CONAB 2021). Some farms have reported yields as high as 114 bags per hectare (Persona 2020).