Elevation: 400–600 metres (1,310–1,970 feet) above sea level
Rainfall: 900–1,300 millimetres (35–51 inches)
Temperature: 22–26°C (72–79°F)
In the lower-lying areas of Espírito Santo, coffee farmers grow conilon, the typically Brazilian lineage of Coffea canephora. The federal government encouraged farmers to replace arabica trees with conilon during the 1960s in response to enduring low arabica prices (Sales et al 2013), and today the state produces 80% of Brazil’s conilon Coffea canephora. Espírito Santo is so closely associated with conilon production that it holds an Indicação de Procedência (IP) for conilon coffee grown anywhere in the state (SAFRA 2021).
Farms in this region are typically large and highly efficient, producing as much as 100 bags per hectare (INCAPER 2021). A multi-year drought combined with high temperatures beginning in 2014–15 caused production levels to drop by half, however (USDA 2017), and production didn’t return to pre-2014 levels until 2019. Despite the perception that conilon is tolerant of adverse climatic conditions, coffee plantations in the region remain susceptible to the effects of climate change (Venancio et al 2020).